Your browser will redirect to your requested content shortly. Define reflective essay examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Personhood is the status of being a person.
Processes through which personhood is recognized socially and legally vary cross-culturally, demonstrating that notions of personhood are not universal. Anthropologist Beth Conklin has shown how personhood is tied to social relations among the Wari’ people of Rondônia, Brazil. This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia’s quality standards. In philosophy, the word “person” may refer to various concepts. According to Charles Taylor, the problem with the naturalist view is that it depends solely on a “performance criterion” to determine what is an agent.
What is crucial about agents is that things matter to them. We thus cannot simply identify agents by a performance criterion, nor assimilate animals to machines there are matters of significance for human beings which are peculiarly human, and have no analogue with animals. Others, such as American Philosopher Francis J. Beckwith, argue that personhood is not linked to function at all, but rather that it is the underlying personal unity of the individual. What is crucial morally is the being of a person, not his or her functioning. A human person does not come into existence when human function arises, but rather, a human person is an entity who has the natural inherent capacity to give rise to human functions, whether or not those functions are ever attained.
It is because an entity has an essence and falls within a natural kind that it can possess a unity of dispositions, capacities, parts and properties at a given time and can maintain identity through change. Frankfurt writes that, “What philosophers have lately come to accept as analysis of the concept of a person is not actually analysis of that concept at all. They are capable of wanting to be different, in their preferences and purposes, from what they are. The criteria for being a person are designed to capture those attributes which are the subject of our most humane concern with ourselves and the source of what we regard as most important and most problematical in our lives. What if personal identity is constituted in, and sustained through, our relations with others, such that were we to erase our relations with our significant others we would also erase the conditions of our self-intelligibility? Other philosophers have defined persons in different ways.
A person is recognized by law as such, not because they are human, but because rights and duties are ascribed to them. The person is the legal subject or substance of which the rights and duties are attributes. An individual human being considered to be having such attributes is what lawyers call a “natural person. As an application of social psychology and other disciplines, phenomena such as the perception and attribution of personhood have been scientifically studied.
Various specific debates focus on questions about the personhood of different classes of entities. For full article, see Beginning of human personhood. The beginning of human personhood is a concept long debated by religion and philosophy. With respect to abortion, ‘personhood’ is the status of a human being having individual human rights. The term was used by Justice Blackmun in Roe v. A representative organization within this movement is Personhood USA, a Colorado-based umbrella group with a number of state-level affiliates, which describes itself as a nonprofit Christian ministry.
Proponents of the movement regard personhood as an attempt to directly challenge the Roe v. Some medical organizations have described the potential effects of personhood legislation as potentially harmful to patients and the practice of medicine, particularly in the cases of ectopic and molar pregnancy. Legal analysis from the Mississippi Center for Public Policy and other medical organizations hold that personhood measures will have no effect on medical intervention intended to save human life. Susan Bordo has suggested that the focus on the issue of personhood in abortion debates has often been a means for depriving women of their rights. Others, such as Colleen Carroll Campbell, say that the personhood movement is a natural progression of society in protecting the equal rights of all members of the human species. The basic philosophical premise behind these amendments is eminently reasonable. Nor is this a dispute about the state imposing a religious or philosophical view.