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Enter the characters you see below Sorry, we just need to make sure you’re not a robot. In Egyptian mythology, Set is portrayed as the usurper who killed and mutilated his own brother Osiris. Egyptian hieroglyphs as stẖ and swtẖ. Sēt, is the basis for the English vocalization. The next phase of the myth begins when the adult Horus challenges Set for the throne of Egypt.
The contest between them is often violent but is also described as a legal judgment before the Ennead, an assembled group of Egyptian deities, to decide who should inherit the kingship. The rivalry of Horus and Set is portrayed in two contrasting ways. Both perspectives appear as early as the Pyramid Texts, the earliest source of the myth. In some spells from these texts, Horus is the son of Osiris and nephew of Set, and the murder of Osiris is the major impetus for the conflict. The other tradition depicts Horus and Set as brothers.
The divine struggle involves many episodes. Contendings” describes the two gods appealing to various other deities to arbitrate the dispute and competing in different types of contests, such as racing in boats or fighting each other in the form of hippopotami, to determine a victor. In this account, Horus repeatedly defeats Set and is supported by most of the other deities. In a key episode in the conflict, Set sexually abuses Horus. Set’s violation is partly meant to degrade his rival, but it also involves homosexual desire, in keeping with one of Set’s major characteristics, his forceful, potent, and indiscriminate sexuality.
Another important episode concerns mutilations that the combatants inflict upon each other: Horus injures or steals Set’s testicles and Set damages or tears out one, or occasionally both, of Horus’s eyes. Sometimes the eye is torn into pieces. Set’s mutilation signifies a loss of virility and strength. In any case, the restoration of the Eye of Horus to wholeness represents the return of the moon to full brightness, the return of the kingship to Horus, and many other aspects of maat. Set was depicted standing on the prow of Ra’s barge defeating the dark serpent Apep. Set and Horus adore Ramesses in the small temple at Abu Simbel. Egypt, and ruled the Nile Delta, from Avaris.
He did not worship any other deity in the whole land except Seth. Jan Assmann argues that because the ancient Egyptians could never conceive of a “lonely” god lacking personality, Seth the desert god, who was worshiped on his own, represented a manifestation of evil. 1522 BC, Ahmose I overthrew the Hyksos and expelled them, Egyptians’ attitudes towards Asiatic foreigners became xenophobic, and royal propaganda discredited the period of Hyksos rule. The Set cult at Avaris flourished, nevertheless, and the Egyptian garrison of Ahmose stationed there became part of the priesthood of Set. The founder of the Nineteenth Dynasty, Ramesses I came from a military family from Avaris with strong ties to the priesthood of Set. Set also became associated with foreign gods during the New Kingdom, particularly in the Delta. Set was also identified by the Egyptians with the Hittite deity Teshub, who, like Set, was a storm god.
Set on a late New Kingdom relief from Karnak: his figure was erased during his demonization. According to Herman te Velde, the demonization of Set took place after Egypt’s conquest by several foreign nations in the Third Intermediate and Late Periods. Set’s negative aspects were emphasized during this period. Set was the killer of Osiris, having hacked Osiris’ body into pieces and dispersed it so that he could not be resurrected. The Greeks would later associate Set with Typhon, a monstrous and evil force of raging nature. Nevertheless, throughout this period, in some outlying regions of Egypt, Set was still regarded as the heroic chief deity. Set has also been classed as a trickster deity who, as a god of disorder, resorts to deception to achieve bad ends.
Oxyrhynchus in upper Egypt, and also in part of the Fayyum area. Sepermeru, especially during the Ramesside Period. There, Seth was honored with an important temple called the “House of Seth, Lord of Sepermeru”. There is no question, however, that the two temples of Seth and Nephthys in Sepermeru were under separate administration, each with its own holdings and prophets. Moreover, another moderately sized temple of Seth is noted for the nearby town of Pi-Wayna. It is unfortunate, perhaps, that we have no means of knowing the particular theologies of the closely connected Set and Nephthys temples in these districts—it would be interesting to learn, for example, the religious tone of temples of Nephthys located in such proximity to those of Seth, especially given the seemingly contrary Osirian loyalties of Seth’s consort-goddess. Kharga, Dakhlah, Deir el-Hagar, Mut, Kellis, etc.
Probably this is the lection of a god adored by the Hittites, the “Kheta”, afterwards assimilated to the local Afro-Asiatic Seth. Wallis Budge, “A History of Egypt from the End of the Neolithic Period to the Death of Cleopatra VII B. Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, vol. Gwyn, “Osiris”, in Redford 2001, pp. Myths: Lunar Cycle”, in Redford 2001, pp.