Motorcycle safety concerns many aspects of vehicle and equipment design as well as operator skill and training that are unique to motorcycle riding. essay on road safety cars out of 100,000 ended up in fatal crashes.
The rate for motorcycles is 72. Motorcycle riders aged below 40 are 36 times more likely to be killed than other vehicle operators of the same age. Motorcycle riders aged 40 years and over are around 20 times more likely to be killed than other drivers of that same age. A total of 37,304 automobile occupants were killed on U. One of the main reasons motorcyclists are killed in crashes is the motorcycle provides virtually no protection in a crash. Two major scientific research studies into the causes of motorcycle accidents have been conducted in North America and Europe: the Hurt Report and the MAIDS report. A major work done on this subject in the United States is the Hurt Report, published in 1981 with data collected in Los Angeles and the surrounding rural areas.
There have been longstanding calls for a new safety study in the US, and Congress has provided the seed money for such a project, but as yet the remainder of the funding has not all been pledged. The Hurt Report concluded with a list of 55 findings, as well as several major recommendations for law enforcement and legislation. In the single vehicle accidents, motorcycle rider error was present as the accident precipitating factor in about two-thirds of the cases, with the typical error being a slide-out and fall due to overbraking or running wide on a curve due to excess speed or lack of side bite. Almost half of the fatal accidents show alcohol involvement.
Injury severity increases with speed, alcohol involvement and motorcycle size. In the multiple vehicle accidents, the driver of the other vehicle violated the motorcycle right-of-way and caused the accident in two-thirds of those accidents. The report’s additional findings show that wearing appropriate gear, specifically, a helmet and durable garments, mitigates crash injuries substantially. The failure of motorists to detect and recognize motorcycles in traffic is the predominating cause of motorcycle accidents Conspicuity of the motorcycle is a critical factor in the multiple vehicle accidents, and accident involvement is significantly reduced by the use of motorcycle headlamps-on In daylight and the wearing of high visibility yellow, orange or bright red jackets. OV drivers attempted no collision avoidance manoeuvre,” suggesting they did not see the motorcycle. And further that, “the largest number of PTW accidents is due to a perception failure on the part of the OV driver or the PTW rider.
And “The data indicates that in 68. The MAIDS report did not publish information on helmet color or the prevalence of reflective or fluorescent clothing in either the accident or control groups, or the use of lights in the control group, and therefore drew no statistical conclusions on their effectiveness, neither confirming nor refuting the claims of the Wells report. In each MAIDS case, the clothing worn by the rider was photographed and evaluated. MAIDS found that motorcycles painted white were actually over-represented in the accident sample compared to the exposure data. On clothing, MAIDS used a “purely subjective” determination of if and how the clothing worn probably affected conspicuity in the accident.
The report concluded that “in 65. Some riders take few steps to mitigate the risks of motorcycling. Transportation historian Jeremy Packer has suggested four categories to describe the different approaches to the risks of motorcycling. The first and fourth categories take opposite views of motorcycling, but share a fatalistic notion that to motorcycle is to tempt fate. The second and third categories differ in the degree of emphasis they place on measures to limit the risk of riding, but share the view that riders have some degree of control and are not victims of fate. Some former motorcyclists had an epiphany due to an accident involving themselves or a person they know, which permanently upends their view of motorcycling. This attitude to risk consists of self-criticism, constant vigilance, perpetual training and practice, and continual upgrading of safety equipment.
It is sometimes a reaction to an epiphany. This is the acceptance that risk is unavoidable but can be embraced by making certain choices, whereby motorcyclists, “reappropriate risk and motorcycling as something which can’t be measured only according to utility and efficiency This discourse doesn’t eschew safety in absolute terms, but neither does it maintain the validity of safety as the be-all and end-all for riding. Spiegel disagrees that only those who have “gone over”, that is, crashed or died, know the location of the boundary line. He says that if motorcycle racers, or even non-professional advanced riders who ride modern sport bikes near their performance limits, were approaching the limits of traction blindly, they would be like a group of blind men wandering around the top of a building, and most of them would wander off the edge and fall. Those subscribing to the first and fourth of Packer’s risk categories are likely to believe no rider can sense when he is near the traction limit, while the second and third risk categories include those who share Spiegel’s view that a rider need not lose traction and start to skid to know where the limit is.
In many countries, incompatibility issues exist between motorcycle riders risk attitudes and nationwide road safety plans. Western democratic societies often rely upon fundamental utilitarian views to achieve its function, such as setting the limits to individual freedom to guarantee public safety. Roads are primarily designed for their main users, cars, and are seldom engineered with motorcycle specific safety in focus. The choice of roadside barriers and guardrails to prevent vehicles from crossing over a median or running off the road have proved to be dangerous for motorcyclists, as they are designed to dissipate braking energy for much heavier and structurally tougher cars and trucks. Road surface can also contribute to a crash. A sudden change in the surface can be sufficient to cause a momentary loss of traction, destabilizing the motorcycle.
The risk of skidding increases if the motorcyclist is braking or changing direction. This is due to the fact that most of the braking and steering control are through the front wheel, while power is delivered through the rear wheel. According to Victorian motorcycle advocate Rodney Brown, the nature and likely consequences of hazards differ significantly for motorcyclists compared to drivers of other vehicles. For example, the current highway standards in the US permit pavement ridges of up to 1. The neutrality of this section is disputed.