For the bibliographic database, see Global Health database. Headquarters of the World Health Organization in Geneva, Health promotion essays. Other important agencies impacting global health include UNICEF and World Food Programme.
Medicine describes the pathology of diseases and promotes prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Public health emphasizes the health of populations. Epidemiology helps identify risk factors and causes of health problems. Demography provides data for policy decisions. Economics emphasizes the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit approaches for the optimal allocation of health resources. Other social sciences such as sociology, development studies, psychology, anthropology, cultural studies, and law can help understand the determinants of health in societies. Both individuals and organizations working in the domain of global health often face many questions regarding ethical and human rights.
Critical examination of the various causes and justifications of health inequities is necessary for the success of proposed solutions. The 19th century held major discoveries in medicine and public health. World Bank Group in 1945, after World War II. The declaration was matched by unprecedented global investment by donor and recipient countries. In 2015 a book titled “To Save Humanity” was published, with nearly 100 essays regarding today’s most pressing global health issues. Disability-adjusted life years per 100,000 people in 2004.
The DALY is a summary measure that combines the impact of illness, disability, and mortality by measuring the time lived with disability and the time lost due to premature mortality. One DALY can be thought of as one lost year of “healthy” life. QALY calculations are based on measurements of the value that individuals place on expected years of survival. Infant mortality and child mortality for children under age 5 are more specific than DALYs or QALYs in representing the health in the poorest sections of a population, and are thus especially useful when focusing on health equity. Morbidity measures include incidence rate, prevalence, and cumulative incidence, with incidence rate referring to the risk of developing a new health condition within a specified period of time.
The diseases and health conditions targeted by global health initiatives are sometimes grouped under “diseases of poverty” versus “diseases of affluence”, although the impact of globalization is increasingly blurring the lines between the two. Infections of the respiratory tract and middle ear are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Poor sanitation can increase transmission of bacteria and viruses through water, food, utensils, hands, and flies. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth are the leading causes of death among women of reproductive age in many developing countries: a woman dies from complications from childbirth approximately every minute.